Madeira Embroidery is regulated by Legal Decree - Decreto Legislativo Regional N.º 7/91/M de 15 de março, in which are specified Stiches and Raw Materials, that confer it authenticity and certification.
Madeira Embroidery is extremely versatile and adaptable, however, in what concerns fabrics, there are specificities to be respected, as follows:
- Natural silk, terylene, linen and organdy - allowed in all articles;
- Linens (sheer and cambric) - allowed in men's handkerchiefs and women's handkerchiefs and blouses;
- Mixture of linen and cotton, containing a minimum of 50% linen - allowed in all articles;
- Wool fabrics or a mixture of wool and cotton – allowed in women's and children's clothing;
- Mixture of cotton and terylene - allowed in bedding, scarves and women's and children's clothing;
- Poplin and Fustian – allowed on children's clothing and women's blouses;
- Cotton fabrics (lightweight) – allowed on children's bedding, handkerchiefs and women's and children's clothing;
- Cotton fabrics (heavy fabric) – allowed in adult bedding.
Concerning threads, the only alowed are silk embroidery threads and cotton floss threads which minimum thickness is n.º16.
- In what stitches are concerned, those allowed in Madeira Embroidery are resumed into three categories:
- Over a sewed lain down thread;
The lacy category includes the stitches Ana, Crivo and Escada.
In the Over a sewed lain down thread category are included the stitches: Cordão, Bastido, Caseado, Ilhó, Cavaca, Oficial and Richelieu.
Concerning the category Other, its includes Pesponto, Francês, Sombra, Corda, Granito and Matiz.
One counts the strings inside the area of the drawing. The strings are extracted both in the horizontal and in the diagonal. The holes created will be stitched by using the embroidery line.
This stitch is obtained by extracting the strings of the cloth and stitching only one side of the hole with the embroidery line.
To obtain this stitch you extract the strings of the cloth and stitch the hole on both sides with the embroidery line.
This is a simple stitch that shares the same hole in which the previous stitch ends.
This is the backside of the Outline Stitch.
This stitch is raised due to the warping (several sequences of bastings in the area of the drawing) it implies and it is finished with a specific covering.
Closed Blanket- and Scalloped Blanket Buttonhole
This stitch is raised due to the warping it implies and it is finished with a specific covering.
This stitch is not raised since it is not warped. The filling is closely embroidered and consists of long stitches placed obliquallly.
Whipped Running Stitch
This stitch is appliqué in the outline of the drawings and its done in spiral. This stitch is embroidered in avery close and regular way. It is also used in the holes, in Broderie Anglaise With Bars Stitch and in other types of stitches.
This stitch always requires more than one piece of cloth. One of them is used for the bottom and the others work as appliqué. The first stitch is appliqué to the clothe to work as an appliqué. The second one is appliqué to the cloth that will work as the bottom.
Open Leaves and Satin Leaves
This stitch can be divided into Open Leaves and Satin Leaves.
- Open Leaves: The outline is finished up with thread.
- Satin Leaves: They are warped an covered.
The Rondel Stitches can be in a row, have a crowning ornament or be basted.
- The stitches in a row and with a crowning ornament always have round shapes and are covered. They have no warping.
This stitch can be divided into Greek Open Hole or in Open Hole.
- The Greek Open Hole has half of its circle filled with baste.
- The Open Hole has the edge of its hole covered. It is trimmed and finished up with Whipped Running Stitch.
Long and Short
The drawn area is covered in a parted way and with no warping.
Broderie Anglaise With Bars
This stich is composed by the Whipped Running Stitch and has the same effect as the Cutwork With Bars Stitch what concerns the trimming. It is used in lighter cloths.
This stitch is used in drawings intended to shade. These are common and well distributed stitches with very regular size.
Beveled with the edges on the trim side.
This stitch is appliqué on the reverse with running knots in the shape of an X, producing the shade on the right side and the “Atraz” Stitch on the edges.